DFI Journal - The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute

Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2008

Papers are only available to members. If you are a member, please click on the "Login" link at the top of the site. You may use your DFI login.

If you are not a member, click here join.

Please click here to complete purchase by clicking on the PDF $25 icon and completing the payment form. The paper will be emailed to you within 48 hours.

Increase in Shear Modulus by Soil Mix and Jet Grout Methods

Paul J. Axtell; Timothy D. Stark


The results of in-situ geophysical cross-hole tests on improved soil by soil mixing (SM) and jet grouting (JG) are described. This testing was conducted on soil improved by SM and JG columns constructed in the downstream free-field of Tuttle Creek Dam near Manhattan, Kansas as part of the seismic retrofit. Results of similar geophysical esting performed on untreated soil in the vicinity of the Downstream Test Program (DTP) area, as well as beneath the embankment at several locations, are also described and used for comparison purposes. In-situ shear moduli are also compared with those determined in laboratory resonant column tests. The increase in stress wave velocities and associated shear moduli by SM and JG treatment are presented for use in liquefaction potential and seismic deformation analyses of SM or JG treated soil. This data is required to determine the decrease in liquefaction potential and earthquake-induced permanent deformations due to SM or JG with respect to that of untreated soil.

jet grout, soil mix, shear, modulus, velocity, com